Livorno in the 19th Century - the return of the Lorraines and the Unification of Italy

Church of St George, built for Livorno's Anglican community in 1844Church of St George, built for Livorno's Anglican community in 1844Napoleon occupied Livorno three times between 1796 and 1800, with the intention of ruining the port’s chances of competing with Marseilles, and of seizing the wealth belonging to the British community in the city.

After the French occupation, the Lorraines were returned to power and under their rule the city of Livorno was extended, with the building of new gateways and squares, public buildings such as the Goldoni Theatre (originally called the Teatro Leopoldo) in 1847, and churches such as San Benedetto in 1819, the Anglican church of St George in 1844, the Presbyterian St Andrew's in 1849, and the Dutch-German Church in 1864.

It was also during these years that some of Livorno’s most famous sons were born, including the artist Giovanni Fattori in 1825, and the musician and composer Pietro Mascagni in 1863.

The Livornese take on the Austrians - re-enactment of 1848 insurrectionThe Livornese take on the Austrians - re-enactment of 1848 insurrectionAll over Italy the mid-1800s were marked by attempts to overturn foreign rule and by a move towards the unification of the country, which finally took place in 1870.  The people of Livorno strongly opposed the Austrians, culminating in the insurrection of 1848 when Livorno proved that it was the only town in Tuscany with a consistent democratic following.

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